Peer-Reviewed Articles

12. One-pot Synthesis of Amphiphilic ABC Triblock Copolymer PEO-b-PEHOx-b-PEtOz and its Self-Assembly into Nanoscopic Asymmetric Polymersomes
D. Daubian, A. Fillion, J. Gaitzsch, W. Meier, Macromolecules, 2020

11. Combinatorial Strategy for Studying Biochemical Pathways in Double Emulsion Templated Cell‐Sized Compartments
E.C. dos Santos, A. Belluati, D. Necula, D. Scherrer, C. E. Meyer, R. P. Wehr, E. Lörtscher, C. G. Palivan, W. Meier, Adv. Mater.2020

10. Metal Cation Responsive Anionic Microgels: Behaviour Towards Biologically Relevant Divalent and Trivalent Ions
V. Chimisso, S. Conti, P. Kong, C. Fodor, W. Meier, Soft Matter, 2020

9. Stabilizing Enzymes within Polymersomes by Co-Encapsulation of Trehalose
M. Dinu, I.  Dinu, S. Saxer, W. Meier, U. Pieles, N. Bruns, Biomacromolecules, 2020

8. Updating Radical Ring-Opening Polymerisation of Cyclic Ketene Acetals from Synthesis to Degradation
J. Folini, W. Murad, F. Mehner, W. Meier, & J. Gaitzsch, European Polymer Journal2020

7. Deepening the insight into poly(butylene oxide)-block-poly(glycidol) synthesis and self-assemblies: micelles, worms and vesicles
R. Wehr, J. Gaitzsch, D. Daubian, C. Fodor, & W. Meier, RSC Adv.2020

6. Multicompartment Polymer Vesicles with Artificial Organelles for Signal-Triggered Cascade Reactions Including Cytoskeleton Formation
A. Belluati, S. Thamboo, A. Najer, V. Maffeis, C. von Planta, I. Craciun, C. G. Palivan, W. Meier, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2020

5. Polymer-Lipid Hybrid Membranes as a Model Platform to Drive Membrane-Cytochrome c Interaction and Peroxidase-like Activity
S. Di Leone, S. Yorulmaz Avsar, A. Belluati, R. Wehr, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B2020

4. Decorating Nanostructured Surfaces with Antimicrobial Peptides to Efficiently Fight Bacteria
S. Rigo, D. Hürlimann, L. Marot, M. Malmsten, W. Meier, & C. P. Palivan, ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2020

3. Bioinspired Molecular Factories with Architecture and In Vivo Functionalities as Cell Mimics
T. Einfalt, M. Garni, D. Witzigmann, S. Sieber, N. Baltisberger, J. Huwyler, W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Adv. Sci., 2020

2. How do the properties of amphiphilic polymer membranes influence the functional insertion of peptide pores ?
A. Belluati, V. Mikhalevich, S. Yorulmaz Avsar, I. Craciun, M. Chami, W. P. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Biomac., 2020

1. Synthesis and complex self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers with a branched hydrophobic poly(2-oxazoline) into multicompoartment micelles, pseudo-vesicles and yolk/shell nanoparticles
D. Daubian, J. Gaitzsch, & W. Meier, Polym. Chem., 2020

 

1. Porphyrin Containing Polymersomes with Enhanced ROS Generation Efficiency: In Vitro Evaluation
M. Kyropoulou, S. Di Leone, A. Lanzilotto, E. C. Constable, C. E. Housecroft, W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Macromol. Biosci., 2019

2.Functional Surfaces: Bio-Hybrid Membranes for Biosensing
C Draghici, V. Mikhalevich, G. Gunkel-Grabole, J. Kowal, W. Meier, C. G. Palivan, GIT laboratory journal 5, 2019

3. Effect of Divalent Cation on Swelling Behavior of Anionic Microgels: Quantification and Dynamics of Ion Uptake and Release
V. Chimisso, C. Fodor, & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2019

4. Novel monomers in radical ring-opening polymerisation for biodegradable and pH responsive nanoparticles
J. Folini, C.-H. Huang, J. C. Anderson, W. Meier, & J. Gaitzsch, Polym. Chem., 2019

5. Mimicking Cellular Signaling Pathways within Synthetic Multicompartment Vesicles with Triggered Enzyme Activity and Induced Ion Channel Recruitment
S. Thamboo, A. Najer, A. Belluati, D. Wu, I. Craciun, W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2019

6.Surfaces with Dual Functionality through Specific Coimmobilization of Self-Assembled Polymeric Nanostructures
S. Rigo, Serena; G. Gunkel-Grabole; W. Meier; C. Palivan, Langmuir, 2019

7. Directed Insertion of Light-Activated Proteorhodopsin into Asymmetric Polymersomes from an ABC Block Copolymer
J. Gaitzsch, S. Hirsch, S. Freimann, D. Fotiadis, & W. Meier, Nano Letters, 2019

8. Probing membrane asymmetry of ABC polymersomes
E. V. Konishcheva, D. Daubian, S. Rigo, & W. Meier, Chem.Commun., 2019

9. pH-Triggered membrane in Pervaporation Process
A.Angelini, C.Fodor, W.Yave, A.Car, & W.Meier, ACS Omega, 201

10. Revisiting Monomer Synthesis and Radical Ring Opening Polymerization of Dimethylated MDO Towards Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Enzymes
J. Gaitzsch, P. C. Welsch, J. Folini, C. A. Schoenenberger, J. C. Anderson, &  W. Meier, Eur. Polym. J., 2018

11. Self-assembly of PEO-b-PCL-b-PMOXA binary mixtures
E. Konishcheva, U. Zhumaev, W. Meier, Macromolecules, 2018

12. Surfaces with Dual Functionality through Specific Coimmobilization of Self-Assembled Polymeric Nanostructures
S. Rigo, G. Gunkel-Grabole, W. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, Langmuir, 2018

13.Cosolvent fractionation of PMOXA-b-PDMS-b-PMOXA:Bulk separation of triblocks from multiblocks
S.Lörcher, W. Meier, European Polymer Journal, 2018

14. Biomimetic Polymer Architectures
G. Gunkel-Grabole, W. Meier, Chimia, 2018

15. Live Follow-Up of Enzymatic Reactions Inside the Cavities of Synthetic Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Equipped with Membrane Proteins Mimicking Cell Architecture
M. Garni, T. Einfalt, R. Goers, C.G.Palivan, & W. Meier, ACS Synth. Biol., 2018

16. Biomimetic Planar Polymer Membranes Decorated with Enzymes as Functional Surfaces
V. Mikhalevich, C. Draghici, G. Gunkel-Grabole, J. Jowal,  W. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, Langmuir, 2018

17. Optimized Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins into Synthetic Membranes
R. Goers, J. Thoma, N. Ritzmann, A. Di Silverstro, C. Alter, G. Gunkel-Grabole. D. Fotiadis, D. J. Müller, & W. Meier, Comm. Chem., 2018

18. Porphyrin-polymer nanocompartments: singlet oxygen generation and antimicrobial activity
M. Kyropoulou, A. Lanzilotto, E.C. Constable, C.E. Housecroft , W.P. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, JBIC, 2018

19. Vesicles in Multiple Shapes: Fine-Tuning Polymersomes' Shape and Stability by Setting Membrane Hydrophobicity
J. Gaitzsch, L. Messager, E. Morecroft, & W. Meier, Polymers, 2017

20. Biomimetic Strategy to Reversibly Trigger Functionality of Catalytic Nanocompartments by the Insertion of pH-Responsive Biovalves
C, Edlinger, T. Einfalt, M. Spulber, A. Anja, W. Meier, & C. Palivan, Nano. Lett., 2017

21. Complex Self-Assembly Behavior of Bis-hydrophilic PEO-b-PCL-b-PMOXA Triblock Copolymers in Aqueous Solution
E. V. Konishcheva, U. E. Zhumaev, M. Kratt, & W. Meier, Macromol., 2017

22. PEO-b-PCL-b-PMOXA Triblock Copolymers: From Synthesis to Microscale Polymersomes with Asymmetric Membrane
E. V. Konishcheva, U. E. Zhumaev, & W. Meier, Macromol., 2017

23. Investigation of Horseradish Peroxidase Kinetics in an "Organelle-Like" Environment
P. Baumann, M. Spulber, O. Fischer, A. Car, & W. Meier, Small2017

24. Strain-Promoted Thiol-Mediated Cellular Uptake of Giant Substrates: Liposomes and Polymersomes
N. Chuard, G. Gasparini, D. Moreau, S. Lörcher, C. Palivan, W. Meier, N. Sakai, & S. Matile, Angew. Chem. Int., 2017

25. Nanostructured Surfaces through Immobilization of Self-Assembled Polymer Architectures Using Thiol-Ene Chemistry
G. Gunkel-Grabole, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Macromol. Mater. Eng., 2017

26. Co-solvent fractionation of PMOXA-b-PDMS-b-PMXOA: Bulk separation of triblocks from multiblocks
S. Lörcher, & W. Meier, Eur. Polym. J.2017

27. DNA-Mediated Self-Organization of Polymeric Nanocompartments Leads to Interconnected Artificial Organelles
J. Liu, V. Postupalenko, S. Lörcher, D. Wu, M. Chami,W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Nano. Lett.2016

28. Active surfaces’ as Possible Functional Systems in Detection and Chemical (Bio) Reactivity
C. E. Housecroft, C. G. Palivan, K. Gademann, W. Meier, M. Calame, V. Mikhalevich, X. Zhang, E. Piel, M. Szponarski, A. Wiesler, A. Lanzilotto, E. C. Constable, A. Fanget, & R. Stoop, CHIMIA, 2016

29. Artificial Organelles: Reactions inside Protein–Polymer Supramolecular Assemblies
M. Garni, T. Einfalt, M. Lomora, A. Car, W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, CHIMIA, 2016

30. Interfacing Functional Systems
Y. Cotelle, N. Chuard, S. Lascano, V. Lebrun, R. Wehlauch, N. Bohni, S. Lörcher, V. Postupalenko, S. Reddy, W. Meier, C. G. Palivan, K. Gademann, T. R. Ward, & S. Matile, CHIMIA 2016

31. Engineering and Assembly of Protein Modules into Functional Molecular Systems
S. Hirschi, M. Stauffer, D. Harder, D. J. Müller, W. Meier, &  D. Fotiadis, CHIMIA, 2016

32. Asymmetric triblock copolymer nanocarriers for controlled localization and pH-sensitive release of proteins
D. Vasquez, T. Einfalt, W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Langmuir, 2016

33. Key aspects to yield low dispersity of PEO-b-PCL diblock copolymers and their mesoscale self-assembly
E.Konishcheva, D.Haeussinger. S. Loercher, & W. Meier, European Polymer Journal2016

34. Engineering a Chemical Switch into the Light-driven Proton Pump Proteorhodopsin by Cysteine Mutagenesis and Thiol Modification
D. Harder, S. Hirschi, Z. Ucurum, R. Goers, W. Meier, D. J. Müller, & D. Fotiadi, Angew. Chem. Int., 2016

35. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery
A. Najer, D. Wu, M. G. Nussbaumer, G. Schwertz, A. Schwab, M. C. Witschel, A. Schäfer, F. Diederich, M. Rottmann, C. G. Palivan, H. Beck, & W. Meier, Nanoscale2016

36. Nanoparticle-based highly sensitive MRI contrast agents with enhanced relaxivity in reductive milieu
S. J. Sigg, F. Santini, A. Najer, P. U. Richard , W. Meier, & C. G. Palivan, Chem. Comm., 2016

37. Engineered non-toxic cationic nanocarriers with photo-triggered slow-release properties
A. I. Dinu, J. T. Duskey, A. Car, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Polymer Chemistry, 2016

38. Active surfaces engineered by immobilizing protein-polymer nanoreactors for selectively detecting sugar alcohols
X. Zhang, M. Lomora, T. Einfalt, W. Meier, N. Klein, D. Schneider, & C. G. Palivan, Biomaterials, 2016

39. Stimuli-Responsive Codelivery of Oligonucleotides and Drugs by Self-Assembled Peptide Nanoparticles
S.J. Sigg, V. Postupalenko, J. T. Duskey, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Biomacromolecules, 2016

40. Giant Host Red Blood Cell Membrane Mimicking Polymersomes Bind Parasite Proteins and Malaria Parasites
A. Najer, S. Thamboo, HP. Beck, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, CHIMIA, 2016

41. PEG Brushes on Porous, PDMS-Coated Surfaces and Their Interaction with Carbon Dioxide
G. Gunkel-Grabole, A. Car, V. V. Naik, L. Marot, G. Ferk, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 2016

42. PH-Triggered Reversible Multiple Protein-Polymer Conjugation Based on Molecular Recognition
J. Liu, V. Postupalenko, J. T. Duskey, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, The Journal of Physical Chemistry2015

43. Analysis of MolecularParameters Determining the Antimalarial Activity of Polymer-Based Nanomimics
A. Najer, S. Thamboo, J. T. Duskey, C. G. Palivan, H.-P. Beck, & W. Meier, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2015

44. Biocompatible Polymer-Peptide Hybrid-Based DNA Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery
D. Witzigmann, D. Wu, S. Schenk, V. Balasubramanian, W. Meier, & J. Huwyler, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2015

45. Dynamics of Membrane Proteins within Synthetic Polymer Membranes with Large Hydrophobic Mismatch
F. Itel, A. Najer, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Nano Lett., 2015

46. Hybrid polymer-lipid films as platforms for directed membrane protein insertion
J. Kowal, D. Wu, V. Mikhalevich, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2015

47. Reduction-Sensitive Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers Self-Assemble Into Stimuli-Responsive Micelles for Drug Delivery
S. Tughrai, V. Malinova, R. Masciadri, S. Menon, P. Tanner, c. G. Palivan, N. Bruns, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Bioscience, 2015

48. Polymeric 3D nano-architectures for transport and delivery of therapeutically relevant biomacromolecules
G. Gunkel-Grabode, S. Sigg, M. Lomora, S. Lörcher, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Biomater. Sci.2015

49. Low CO2 permeability of cholesterol-containing liposomes detected by stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy
G. Tsiavaliaris, F. Itel, K. Hedfalk, S. Al Samir, W. Meier, G. Gros, & V. Endeward, FASEB Journal,2015

50. Interfacial Binding of Divalent Cations to Calixarene-Based Langmuir Monolayers
L.G. Tulli, W. Wang , W.R. Lindemann, I. Kuzmenko, W. Meier, D. Vaknin, P. Shahgaldian, Langmuir2015

1. Nanomimics of Host Cell Membranes Block Invasion and Expose Invasive Malaria Parasites
A. Najer, D. Wu, A. Bieri, F. Brand, C. G. Palivan, H-P Beck, & W. Meier, ACS Nano2014

2. Molecular Organization and Dynamics in Polymersome Membranes: A Lateral Diffusion Study
F. Itel, M. Chami, A. Najer, S. Lörcher, , D. Wu, I. A. Dinu, & W. Meier, Macromolecules2014

3. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-tris-nitrilotriacetic acid acrylamide) for a Combined Study of Molecular Recognition and Spatial Constraints in Protein Binding and Interactions
J. Liu, M. Spulber, D. Wu, R. M. Talom, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, JACS, 2014

4. Effect of Molecular Parameters on the Architecture and Membrane Properties of 3D Assemblies of Amphiphilic Copolymers
D. Wu, M. Spulber, F. Itel, M. Chami, T. Pfohl, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Macromolecules, 2014

5. pH-Responsive PDMS-b-PDMAEMA Micelles for Intracellular Anticancer Drug Delivery
A. Car, P. Baumann, J. T. Duskey, M. Chami, N. Bruns, & W. Meier, Biomacromolecules2014

6. "Active surfaces" Formed by Immobilization of Enzymes on Solid Supported Polymer Membranes
C. L. Draghici, J. Kowal, A. Darjan, W. Meier, C. Palivan, Langmuir2014

7. A general strategy for creating self-defending surfaces for controlled drug production for long periods of time
K. Langowska, J. Kowal, C. G. Palivan, W. Meier, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2014

8. Functional surface engineering by nucleotide-modulated potassium channel insertion into polymer membranes attached to solid supports
J. L. Kowal, J. K. Kowal, D. Wu, H. Stahlberg, C. G. Palivan, W. Meier, Biomaterials2014

9. Functional Surface Engineering by Nucleotide-Modulated Potassium Channel Insertion into Polymer Membranes Attached to Solid Supports
J. Kowal, D. Wu, C. G. Palivan H. Stahlberg W. Meier, Biomaterials2014

10. Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Polymersome Nanoreactors for Laccase-Catalyzed Biotransformations
M. Spulber, P. Baumann, S. S. Saxer, U. Pieles, W. Meier, & N. Bruns; Biomacromolecules2014

11. Polymorphism control of an active pharmaceutical ingredient beneath calixarene-based Langmuir monolayers
L. G. Tulli, N. Moridi, W. Wang, K. Helttunen, M. Neuburger, D. Vaknin, W. Meier, & P. Shahgaldian, Chem. Commun., 2014

12. Planar Biomimetic Membranes Based on Amphiphilic Block Copolymer
J. Kowal, X. Zhang, I. A. Dinu, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, ACS Macro. Lett.2014

13. Multicompartment micelle-structured peptide nanoparticles: A new biocompatible gene- and drug-delivery tool
D. de Bruyn Ouboter, T. Schuster, V. Shanker, M. Heim, & W. Meier, Journal of Biomedical Material Research2014

14. Printing Enzymes for Colorimetric Assays on Paper
S. S. Saxer, F. Wildi, W. Walser, O. Boss, R. Zimmer, M. Spulber, W. Meier, P. Paul, N. Bruns, & U. Pieles, Chimia2013

15. Self-assembled peptide beads used as a template for ordered gold nanoparticle superstructures
D. de Bruyn Outboter, T. B. Schuster, S. J. Sigg, & W. Meier, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2013

16. Gel-Assisted Formation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles
A. Weinberger, F. C. Tsai, G. H. Koenderik, T. H. Schmidt, R. Itri, W. Meier, T. Schmatko, A. Schröder, & C. Marques, Biophysical Journal2013

17. Natural channel protein inserts and functions in a completely artificial, solid-supported bilayer membrane
X. Zhang, W. Fu, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Scientific Reports, 2013

18. Photoreaction of a Hydroxyalkyphenone with the Membrane of Polymersomes: A Versatile Method To Generate Semipermeable Nanoreactors
M. Spulber, A. Najer, K. Winkelbach, O. Glaied, M. Waser, U. Pieles, W. Meier, & N. Bruns, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013

19. Synthetic nanomaterial for virus recognition produced by surface imprinting
A. Cumbo, B. Lorber, P. F. X. Corvini, W. Meier, & P. Shahgaldian, Nature communications, 2013

20. Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification
L. Baumann, D. Hegemann, D. de Courten, M. Wolf, R. M. Rossi, W. Meier, & l. J. Scherer, Applied Surface Science, 2013

21. Fluorescence-Based Assay for the Optimization of the Activity of Artificial Transfer Hydrogenase within a Biocompatible Compartment   
T. Heinisch, K. Langowska, P. Tanner, J. L. Reymond, W. Meier, & T. R. Ward, ChemCatChem, 2013

22. Biodegradable polymer–lipid monolayers as templates for calcium phosphate mineralization
A. Jagoda, M. Zinn, E. Bieler, W. Meier, & K. Kita-Tokarczyk, J. Mater Chem. B2013

23. Polymer nanoreactors shown to produce and release antibiotics locally
K. Langowska, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Chem. Commun., 2013

24. High-Density Reconstitution of Functional Water Channels into Vesicular and Planar Block Copolymer Membranes
M. Kumar, J. E. O Habel, J. X. Shen, W. Meier, & T. Walz, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012

25. Membrane protein distribution in composite polymer-lipid thin films
J. Thoma, S. Belegrinou, P. Rossbach, M. Grzelakowski, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, & W. Meier, Chemical Communications, 2012

26. Specific His(6)-tag Attachment to Metal-Functionalized Polymersomes Relies on Molecular Recognition
P. Tanner, M. Ezhevskaya, R. Nehring, S. Van Doorslaer, W. Meier, & C. Palivan, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2012

27. CO2 permeability of cell membranes is regulated by membrane cholesterol and protein gas channels
F. Itel, S. Al-Samir, F. Öberg, M. Chami, M. Kumar, C.T. Supuran, P.M.T. Deen, W. Meier, K. Hedfalk, G. Gros, & V. Endeward, The FASEB Journal, 2012

28. Gas-tight triblock-copolymer membranes are converted to CO2 permeable by insertion of plant aquaporins
N. Uehlein, B. Otto, A. Eilingsfeld, F. Itel, W. Meier, & R. Kaldenhoff, Scientific Reports2012

29. Head group influence on lipid interactions with a polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer
A. Jagoda, M. Zinn, W. Meier, & K. Kita-Tokarczyk, Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics2012

30. Synthetic Biology, Inspired by Synthetic Chemistry
V. Malinova, W. Meier, & E.K. Sinner, FEBS Letters, 2012

31. Solution Behavior of Double-Hydrophilic Block Copolymers in Dilute Aqueous Solution
O. Casse, A. Shkilnyy, J. Linders, C. Mayer, D. Haussinger, A. Volkel, A.F. Thunemann, R. Dimova, H. Colfen, W. Meier, H. Schlaad, & A. Taubert, Macromolecules2012

32. Benzodifuran-containing well-defined π-conjugated polymers for photovoltaic cells
H. Li, P. Tang, Y. Zhao, S.-X. Liu, Y. Aeschi, L. Deng, J. Braun, B. Zhao, Y. Liu, Bin, S. Tan, W. Meier, & S. Decurtins, Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry2012

33. Probing Bioinspired Transport of Nanoparticles into Polymersomes
K. Jaskiewicz, A. Larsen,I. Lieberwirth, K. Koynov, W. Meier, G. Fytas, A. Kroeger, & K. Landfester, Angewandte Chemie2012

34. A novel type of silver nanoparticles and their advantages in toxicity testing in cell culture systems
A. Haase, A. Mantion, P.Graf, J. Plendl, A.F. Thuenemann, W. Meier, A. Taubert, & A. Luch, Archives of toxicology, 2012

35. Highly Permeable and Selective Pore-Spanning Biomimetic Membrane Embedded with Aquaporin Z
H. Wang, T.-S. Chung, Y. W. Tong, K. Jeyaseelan, A. Armugam, Z. Chen, M. Hong, & W. Meier, Small2012

36. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Primary Mixed Neural Cell Cultures: Uptake, Oxidative Stress and Acute Calcium Responses
A. Haase, S. Rott, A. Mantion, P. Graf, J. Plendl, A. F. Thünemann, W. P. Meier, A. Taubert, A. Luch, & G. Reiser, Toxicological Sciences, 2012

37. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN)
A. Mantion, P. Graf, I. Florea, A. Haase, A.F. Thünemann, A. Masic, O. Ersen, P. Radu, W. Meier, A. Luch, & A. Taubert, Nanoscale2011

38. Synthetic polyion-counterion transport systems in polymersomes and gels
J. Montenegro, J. Braun, O. Fischer-Onaca, W. Meier, & S. Matile, Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry2011

39. Synthesis of poly(styrene-co-diene)-block-polyglycidol. Self-association and stabilization of aggregates
E. Haladjova, N. Dishovsky, W. Meier, Ch. B. Tsvetanov, & Ch. P. Novakov, Soft Matter2011

40. Photoresponsive polymersomes as smart, triggerable nanocarriers
E. Cabane, V. Malinova, S. Menon, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Soft Matter2011

41. Aquaporin based triblock copolymer membranes for water purification
M. Kumar, W. Meier, & J. Zilles, Polymer Preprints2011

42. Preparation and characterization of pore-suspending biomimetic membranes embedded with Aquaporin Z on carboxylated polyethylene glycol polymer cushion
H. Wang, T.-S. Chung, Y. W. Tong, W. Meier, Z. Chen, M. Hong, K. Jeyaseelan, & A. Armugam, Soft Matter2011

43. Exploiting dimerization of amphiphilic peptides to form vesicles
T. B. Schuster, D. de Bruyn Ouboter, N. Bruns, & W. Meier, Small2011

44. Hierarchical Organization of Purely Peptidic Amphiphiles into Peptide Beads
D. de Bruyn Ouboter, Th. B. Schuster, A. Mantion, & W.Meier, Journal of Physical Chemistry C2011

45. Interactions of biodegradable poly([R]-3-hydroxy-10-undecenoate) with DOPC lipid: a monolayer study
A. Jagoda, P. Ketikidis, M. Zinn, W. Meier, & K. Kita-Tokarczyk, Langmuir2011

46. Phase Behavior of Vesicle-Forming Block Copolymers in Aqueous Solutions
J. Braun, N. Bruns, T. Pfohl, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics2011

47. Can polymeric vesicles that confine enzymatic reactions act as simplified organelles?
P. Tanner, S. Egli, V. Balasubramanian, O. Onaca, C. G. Palivan, W. Meier, FEBS Letters2011

48. Amphiphilic PEG-b-PMCL-b-PDMAEMA Triblock Copolymers: From Synthesis to Physico-Chemistry of Self-Assembled Structures
Y. Matter, R. Enea, O. Casse, C. C. Lee, J. Baryza, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics2011

49. Application of laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry/time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry in nanotoxicology: visualization of nanosilver in human macrophages and cellular responses
A. Haase, H. F. Arlinghaus, J. Tentschert, H. Jungnickel, P. Graf, A. Mantion, F. Draude, S. Galla, J. Plendl, M. E. Goetz, A. Masic, W. Meier, A. F. Thuenemann, A. Taubert, & A. Luch, ACS Nano2011

50. From fibers to micelles using point-mutated amphiphilic peptides
T. B. Schuster, D. de Bruyn Ouboter, C. G. Palivan, & W. Meier, Langmuir2011

51. Enzymatic Cascade Reactions inside Polymeric Nanocontainers: A Means to Combat Oxidative Stress
P. Tanner, O. Onaca, V. Balasubramanian, W. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, Chemistry2011

52. Silicification of Peptide-Coated Silver Nanoparticles-A Biomimetic Soft Chemistry Approach toward Chiral Hybrid Core-Shell Materials
P. Graf, A. Mantion, A. Haase, A.F. Thunemann, A. Masic, W. Meier, A. Luch, & A. Taubert, ACS Nano2011

53. Biocompatible Functionalization of Polymersome Surfaces: A new Approach to Surface Immobilization and Cell Targeting using Polymersomes
S. Egli, M.G. Nussbaumer, V. Balasubramanian, M. Chami, N. Bruns, C. Palivan, & W. Meier, Journal of the American Chemical Society2011

54. Planar Block Copolymer Membranes by Vesicle Spreading
J. Dorn, S. Belegrinou, M. Kreiter, E.-K. Sinner, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Bioscience2011

55. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces
S. Egli, H. Schlaad, N. Bruns, & W. Meier, Polymers2011

56. Solid-supported polymeric membranes
S. Belegrinou, S. Menon, D. Dobrunz, & W. Meier, Soft Matter2011

57. Towards Targeted Drug Delivery by Covalent Ligand-Modified Polymeric Nanocontainers
S. Egli, B. Fischer, S. Hartmann, P. Hunziker, W. Meier, & P. Rigler, Macromolecular symposia, 2010

58. Poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(ethylene imine) block copolymers as templates and catalysts for the in situ formation of monodisperse silica nanospheres
L. Kind, A. Shkilnyy, H. Schlaad, W. Meier, & A. Taubert, Colloid and polymer science, 2010

59. Benzodifuran-Based π-Conjugated Copolymers for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
H. Li, P. Jiang, C. Yi, C. Li, S.-X. Liu, S. Tan, B. Zhao, J. Braun, W. Meier, T. Wandlowski, & S. Decurtins, Macromolecules, 2010

60. Solid Peptide Nanoparticles: Structural Characterization and Quantification of Cargo Encapsulation
C. Dittrich, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Bioscience, 2010

61. Reversible peptide particle formation using a mini amino acid sequence
T. B. Schuster, D. de Bruyn Ouboter, E. Bordignon, G. Jeschke, & W. Meier, Soft Matter, 2010

62. Synthesis of photocleavable amphiphilic block copolymers: toward the design of photosensitive nanocarriers
E. Cabane, V. Malinova, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2010

63. Efficient two-step synthesis of 11,11'-dithiobis[1-(2-bromo-2-methylpropionyloxy)undecane], a conventional initiator for grafting polymer brushes from gold surfaces via ATRP
S. Belegrinou, V. Malinova, R. Masciadri, & W. Meier, Synthetic Communications, 2010

64. Protein decorated membranes by specific molecular interactions
R. Nehring, C. G. Palivan, S. Moreno-Flores, A. Mantion, P. Tanner, J. L. Toca-Herrera, A. Thünemann, & W. Meier, Soft Matter, 2010

65. SOD antioxidant nanoreactors: Influence of block copolymer composition on the nanoreactor efficiency
O. Onaca, D.W. Hughes, V. Balasubramanian, M. Grzelakowski, W. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, Macromolecular Bioscience, 2010

66. Stabilized amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-diene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) aggregates
C.P. Novakov, E. Haladjova, N. Dishovsky, A. Hirao, W. Meier, & C.B. Tsvetanov, Colloid and Polymer Science, 2010

67. Amphiphilic copolymer membranes promote NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity: Towards an electron-transfer nanodevice
A. Graff, C. Fraysse-Ailhas, C.G. Palivan, M. Grzelakowski, T. Friedrich, C. Vebert, G. Gscheidt, & W. Meier, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 2010

68. Biomimetic supported membranes from amphiphilic block copolymers
S. Belegrinou, J. Dorn, M. Kreiter, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, E.-K. Sinner, & W. Meier, Soft Matter2010

1. Polymer vesicles loaded with precipitated gadolonium nanoparticles: A novel target-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging 
P. Broz, N. Ben-Haim, S. Marsch, K. Scheffler, W. Meier, & P. Hunziker, Eur. J. Nanomedicine 2009

2. Triggering mesophase order in melts of metastable, ultrathin diblock copolymer films through microstretching: Effect of melt film thickness
S. Moreno-Flores, R. Nehring, R. Raiteri, & W. Meier, Macromolecules, 2009

3. How to reduce superoxide anion concentration using antioxidant nanoreactors
V. Balasubramanian, O. Onaca, F. Axthelm, D. Hughes, M. Grzelakowski, & W. Meier, C.G. Palivan, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials2009

4. Immobilized protein-polymer nanoreactors
M. Grzelakowski, O. Onaca, P. Rigler, M. Kumar, & W. Meier, Small2009

5. Monolayer interactions between lipids and amphiphilic block copolymers
K. Kita-Tokarczyk, F. Itel, M. Grzelakowski, S. Egli, P. Rossbach, & W. Meier, Langmuir2009

6. Optimal hybridization efficiency upon immobilization of oligonucleotide double helices
J. Razumovitch, K. de Franca, F. Kehl, M. Wiki, W. Meier, & C. Vebert, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2009

7. Calcein release from polymeric vesicles in blood plasma and PVA hydrogel
S. Litvinchuk, Z. Lu, P. Rigler, T.D. Hirt, & W. Meier, Pharmaceutical Research, 2009

8. Silsesquioxane/polyamine nanoparticle-templated formation of star- or raspberry-like silica nanoparticles
L. Kind, F.A. Plamper, R. Gobel, A. Mantion, A.H.E. Muller, U. Pieles, A. Taubert, & W. Meier, Langmuir2009

9. Observing proteins as single molecules encapsulated in surface-tethered polymeric nanocontainers
T. Rosenkranz, A. Katranidis, D. Atta, I. Gregor, J. Enderlein, M. Grzelakowski, P. Rigler, W. Meier, & J. Fitter, ChemBioChem2009

10. Stimuli-responsive polymersomes as nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery
O. Onaca, R. Enea, D.W. Hughes, W. Meier, Biophys. Chem.2009

11. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers for molecular recognition: metal-nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized vesicles
R. Nehring, C.G. Palivan, O. Casse, P. Tanner, J. Tüxen, & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2009

12. Solid-supported amphiphilic triblock copolymer membranes grafted from gold surface
E. Rakhmatullina, A. Mantion, T. Bürgi, V. Malinova, & W. Meier, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem.2009

13. A microcontact printing approach to the immobilization of oligonucleotide brushes
J. Razumovitch, W. Meier, & C. Vebert, Biophys. Chem.2009

14. Synthesis of compounds presenting three and four anthracene units as potential connectors to mediate infinite lateral growth at the air/water interface
C. Münzenberg, A. Rossi, K. Feldman, R. Fiolka, A. Stemmer, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, W. Meier, J. Sakamoto, O. Lukin, & A.D. Schlüter, Chem.-Eur. J., 2008

15. Oligonucleotide nanostructured surfaces: effect on Escherichia coli curli expression
N. Cottenye, F. Teixeira Jr., A. Ponche, G. Reiter, K. Anselme, W. Meier, L. Ploux, & C. Vebert-Nardin, Macromol. Biosci.2008

16. Antioxidant nanoreactor based on superoxide dismutase encapsulated in superoxide-permeable vesicles
F. Axthelm, O. Casse, O., W.H. Koppenol, T. Nauser, W. Meier, & C.G. Palivan, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008

17. Calcium phosphate mineralization beneath monolayers of poly(n-butylacrylate)–block–poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers
O. Casse, O. Colombani, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, A.H.E. Müller, W. Meier, & A. Taubert, Faraday Discuss2008

18. Dendronised block copolymers as potential vectors for gene transfection
T.J. Wigglesworth, F. Teixeira  Jr., F. Axthelm, S. Eisler, N.S. Csaba, H.P. Merkle, W. Meier, & F. Diederich, Org. Biomol. Chem.2008

19. Solid-supported block copolymer membranes through interfacial adsorption of charged block copolymer vesicles
E. Rakhmatullina, & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2008

20. Cell-specific integration of artificial organelles based on functionalized polymer vesicles
N. Ben-Haim, P. Broz, S. Marsch, W. Meier, & P. Hunziker, Nano Lett.2008

21. Inhibition of macrophage phagocytotic activity by a receptor-targeted polymer vesicle-based drug delivery formulation of pravastatin
P. Broz, N. Ben-Haim, M. Grzelakowski, S. Marsch, W. Meier, & P. Hunziker, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2008

22. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z
M. Kumar, M. Grzelakowski, J. Zilles, M. Clark, & W. Meier, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2007

23. Self-organization behavior of methacrylate-based amphiphilic di- and triblock copolymers
E. Rakhmatullina, T. Braun, M. Chami, V. Malinova, & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2007

24. Functionalization of gold and silicon surfaces by copolymer brushes using surface-initiated ATRP
E. Rakhmatullina, T. Braun, T. Kaufmann, H. Spillmann, V. Malinova, & W. Meier, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 2007

25. Toward intelligent nanosize bioreactors: a pH-switchable, channel-equipped, functional polymer nanocontainer
P. Broz, S. Driamov, J. Ziegler, N. Ben-Haim, S. Marsch, W. Meier, & P. Hunziker, Nano Lett., 2006

26. Prism-based multicolor fluorescence correlation spectrometer
L.C. Hwang, M. Leutenegger, M. Gösch, T. Lasser, P. Rigler, W. Meier, & T. Wohland, Opt. Lett.2006

27. A nanocompartment system (synthosome) designed for biotechnological applications
M. Nallani, S. Benito, O. Onaca, A. Graff, M. Lindemann, M. Winterhalter, W. Meier, & U. Schwaneberg, J. Biotechnol.2006

28. Encapsulation of fluorescent molecules by functionalized polymeric nanocontainers: investigation by confocal fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
P. Rigler, & W. Meier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006

29. Phase behavior of mixed Langmuir monolayers from amphiphilic block copolymers and an antimicrobial peptide
T. Haefele, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, & W. Meier, Langmuir2006

30. Self-assembly of amphiphilic calix[4]arenes in aqueous solution
M. Strobel, K. Kita-Tokarczyk, A. Taubert, C. Vebert, P.A. Heiney, M. Chami, & W. Meier, Adv. Funct. Mater.2006

31. Therapeutic nanoreactors: combining chemistry and biology in a novel triblock copolymer drug delivery system
A. Ranquin, W. Versees, M. Meier, J. Steyaert, & P. Van Gelder, Nano Lett.2005

32. Synthesis and characterization of new polymer nanocontainers
S. Poux, & W. Meier, Macromolecular Symposia2005

33. Hybrid nanocapsules: interactions of ABA block copolymers with liposomes
T. Ruysschaert, A. Sonnen, T. Haefele, W. Meier, M. Winterhalter, & D. Fournier, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2005

34. Cell targeting by a generic receptor-targeted polymer nanocontainer platform
P. Broz, S.M. Benito, C.L. Saw, P. Burger, H. Heider, M. Pfisterer, S. Marsch, W. Meier, & P. Hunziker, J. Control. Release , 2005

35. Asymmetric membranes from amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers
R. Stoenescu, & W. Meier, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst2004

36. Water-in-water mesophases for templating inorganics
A. Taubert, E. Furrer, & W. Meier, Chem. Commun2004

37. Soft nanotubes from amphiphilic ABA triblock macromonomers
J. Grumelard, A. Taubert, & W. Meier, Chem. Commun.2004

38. Asymmetric ABC-triblock copolymer membranes induce a directed insertion of membrane proteins
R. Stoenescu, A. Graff, & W. Meier, Macromol. Biosci.2004

39. Liposome-based nanocapsules
T. Ruysschaert, M. Germain, J.P. Pereira da Silva Gomes, D. Fournier, G.B. Sukhorukov, W. Meier, & M. Winterhalter, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci.2004

40. Virus-Assisted Loading of Polymeric Nanocontainers
A.Graff, M. Sauer, P. van Gelder & W. Meier, Proc. Acad. Sci., 2002

41. New Liposome Gels By Self Organization of Vesicles And Intelligent Polymers
K.H. Diec, T. Sokolowski, K.P. Wittern, J. Schreiber & W. Meier, Cosmet.Toil., 2002

42. Spontaneous formation of liposomes from lamellar liquid crystals
K.H. Diec, W. Meier & J. Schreiber, Cosmet. Toil., 2002

43.Hybrid Materials from Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Membrane Proteins
C. Nardin & W. Meier, Rev. Mol. Biotechnol, 2002

44.Ion-Carrier Controlled Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate in Giant ABA Triblock Copolymer Vesicles
M. Sauer, T. Haefele, A. Graff, C. Nardin & W. Meier, Chem. Commun., 2001

45.Controlled Permeability through Liposomes Using Bacterial Porins: Application to Encapsulated Enzymes
M. Winterhalter, C. Hilty, S.M. Bezrukov, C. Nardin, W. Meier & D. Fournier, Talanta, 2001

46.pH-Sensitive Nanocontainers
M. Sauer, D. Streich & W. Meier, Adv. Mater., 2001

47.Polymer Nanocontainers with Controlled Permeability
M. Sauer & W. Meier, Aust. J. Chem., 2001

48.Enzyme Stabilization and Proteolysis Protection by Functionalized Liposomes
M. Nasseau, Y. Boublik, W. Meier, M. Winterhalter & D. Fournier, Biotech. Bioeng., 2001

49.Polymerizable Amphiphilic Block Copolymers: From Nanostructured Hydrogels to Nanoreactors and Ultrathin Films
C. Nardin & W. Meier, Chimia, 2001

50.Amphiphilic Block Copolymer Nanocontainers as Bioreactors
C. Nardin, J. Widmer, M. Winterhalter & W. Meier, Eur. Phys. J. E., 2001

51.Nanoreactors Based on Polymer-Stabilized Liposomes
A. Graff, M. Winterhalter & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2001

52.Percolation Temperature of a Non-Ionic W/O-Microemulsions Against Chain Length of an Ionic Additive
H.-F. Eicke & W. Meier, Colloid Polym. Sci., 2001

53.Responsive Nanocapsules 
M. Sauer & W. Meier, Chem. Commun., 2001

54.Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins in (Polymerized) ABA-Triblock Copolymer Membranes
C. Nardin, M. Winterhalter & W. Meier, Angew. Chem. Int., 2000

55.Stabilization of Planar Lipid Membranes: A Stratified Layer Approach
W. Meier, A. Graff, A. Diederich & M. Winterhalter, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2000

56.Giant Polymerized ABA-Triblock Copolymer Membranes
C. Nardin, M. Winterhalter & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2000

57.Nanoreactors Based on Polymerized ABA-Triblock Copolymer Vesicles
C. Nardin, S. Thoeni,  M. Winterhalter & W. Meier, Chem. Commun., 2000

58.Improved Solubilization by Embedding a Sparingly Water-Soluble Model Drug in Physiological Bile Components
A.Ebner, B. Galli, B. Häberlin, W. Meier & S. Reidemeister, Proc. APV/APGI, 2000

59.Reversible Cell Aggregation Induced by Specific Ligand-Receptor Coupling
W. Meier, Langmuir, 2000

60.Polymerized ABA-Triblock Copolymer Vesicles
C. Nardin, T. Hirt, J. Leukel & W. Meier, Langmuir, 2000

1. Reversible Metal-Directed Assembly of Clusters of Vesicles
E.C. Constable, W. Meier, C. Nardin and S. Mundwiler, Chem. Commun., 1999

2. Charge Transport as Suitable Tool to Study Near-Percolation Phenomena
H.-F. Eicke, W. Meier and H. Hammerich, Coll. Surfaces, 1999

3. Effect of Surface Charges or Polymer Decoration on the Rupture of Planar Lipid Membranes
M. Winterhalter, A. Diederich, W. Meier and G. Bahr, Biophys. J., 1999

4. Viscosity and Inertia Limited Rupture of Dextrane-Supported Black Lipid Membranes
Diederich, M. Winterhalter, M. Strobel and W. Meier, J. Phys. Chem. B, 1999

5. Polymer Particles by Templating of Vesicles
J. Hotz and W. Meier, Adv. Mater., 1998

6. Polymer Networks with Lamellar Structure
W. Meier, Macromolecules, 1998

7. Vesicle Templated Polymer Hollow Spheres
J. Hotz and W. Meier, Langmuir, 1998

8. New Nonionic Headtype Polysoaps: A Way to Reversed Liquid Crystalline Phases
C. Schwarzwälder and W. Meier, Macromolecules, 1997

9. Electric Conductivity near the Percolation Transition of a Nonionic Water-in-Oil Microemulsion
S. Weigert, H.-F. Eicke and W. Meier, Physica, 1997

10. Structure of W/O-Microemulsion Templated Polymer Networks
W. Meier, Colloid Polym. Sci., 1997

11. Kerr Effect Measurements on a Poly(oxyethylene) Containing Water-In-Oil Microemulsion
W. Meier,  J. Phys. Chem., 1997

12. Structured Polymer Networks from O/W-Microemulsions and Liquid Crystalline Phases
W. Meier, Langmuir, 1996

13. Vesicle- and Cell Networks: Interconnecting Cells by Synthetic Polymers
W. Meier, J. Hotz and S. Günther-Ausborn, Langmuir, 1996

14. W/O-Microemulsions from Binary Ionic/Nonionic Surfactant Mixtures
H.-F. Eicke, H. Hammerich and W. Meier, Coll. and Surfaces, 1996

15. Surface Pressure Determines the Interaction Between Polyoxyethylene and a Surfactant Bilayer
W. Meier and J.J. Ramsden, J. Phys. Chem., 1996

16. Electric, Dielectric and Kerr Effect Investigations in Water-In-Oil Microemulsions
W. Meier and H.-F. Eicke, Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, 1996

17. Microemulsion Elastomers
W. Meier, A. Falk, M. Odenwald and F. Stieber, Colloid Polym. Sci., 1996

18. Elastically Induced Shift of System-Spanning Cluster Formation in W/O-Microemulsion Networks"
W. Meier, M. Odenwald and H.-F. Eicke, Coll. and Surfaces, 1996

19. Polyoxyethylene Adsorption in W/O-Microemulsions: A Conductivity Study
W. Meier,  Langmuir, 1996

20. Transient Networks by ABA -Triblock Copolymers and Microemulsions
M. Odenwald,   H.-F. Eicke and W. Meier, Macromolecules, 1995

21. On Nanodroplets and Bicontinuous States in Percolated W/O Microemulsions
W. Meier, Coll. and Surfaces, 1995

22. Interfacial Charge Transport in W/O-Microemulsions Stabilized by Ionic/Nonionic Surfactant Mixtures
H.-F. Eicke and W. Meier, Biophys. Chem., 1995

23. Ladungstransport in Perkolierenden W/O-Mikroemulsionen
W. Meier and H.-F. Eicke, Bulletin SPG, 1994

24. On Electric Conductivity of Infinite Clusters in W/O Microemulsions
H.-F. Eicke, H. Hammerich and W. Meier, Langmuir, 1994

25. Piezoelectricity of Cholesteric Elastomers: Influence of the Helicoidal Pitch on the Piezoelectric Coefficient
W. Meier and H. Finkelmann, Macromolecules, 1993

26. Liquid Crystalline Elastomers
W. Meier and H. Finkelmann, Condensed Matter News, 1992

27. Inverse Piezoelectricity of Cholesteric Elastomers
W. Meier, H. Hirschmann and H. Finkelmann, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun., 1992

28. Piezoelectric and Non-linear Optic Properties of LC-Elastomers
H. Hirschmann, W. Meier and H. Finkelmann, Proc. SPIE-Int- Soc. Opt. Engl., 1991

29. Liquid Crystalline Elastomers with Piezoelectric Properties
W. Meier and H. Finkelmann, Materials Research Bulletin, 1991

30. Piezoelectricity of Cholesteric Elastomers
W. Meier and H. Finkelmann, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun., 1990